HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 1 of 12 History of Ideas February Main Intake 2016 First Essay 1000 words, 15% Due date: Thursday 26 May, 2016 If the essay is more than 10% above the word count this will be taken into account when determining the grade of the essay. The bibliography and references in brackets are not included in the word count. The essay must be based on the recommended reading (both primary source extracts and secondary sources). *Any materials used which are not on the recommended reading list must be uploaded in electronic form, with parts used highlighted. Please do not use non-English language sources. ** Where there is doubt about the authorship of the essay, the student will be required to sit the final exam and will not have the option to select Ordinary Level HOI. Question One: Are Sallust’s ideas in Catiline’s War insightful or superficial? In preparing your response, be sure to examine all of the primary sources carefully. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 2 of 12 Reading: Primary Sources These primary source extracts are provided on the following pages: Sallust 2016, Catiline’s War extract, Trinity College Foundation Studies, Melbourne. Secondary Sources PDF versions of chapters and articles from the following books and journals are available at the Leeper library and can be obtained by searching its catalogue, which is accessible via the Trinity portal on the internet in any location. Please do not print HOI materials in the library: use the Trinity computer labs for printing. These secondary sources are meant to help you understand and analyse the primary source. They are not intended to be the main source of information for your essay, and should be used judiciously. Batstone, W 2010, ‘Introduction’, in Sallust, Catiline’s conspiracy, the Jugurthine War, histories, trans. W Batstone, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, pp. xix-xxv, xxxi-xxxiii. Lintott A 1986, ‘Roman Historians’, in Boardman J, Griffin J, and Murray O (eds) 1986, Oxford history of the classical world, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 642-644. Mellor R 1999, The Roman historians, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 35-38. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 3 of 12 History of Ideas Essay: COLLUSION and PLAGIARISM Any academic essay MUST be your own independent work from start to end. Using other people’s ideas, words, or work is cheating and is an academic crime. Trinity College (and the University of Melbourne) regards cheating very seriously, and any collusion or plagiarism will be severely penalised. COLLUSION: You must work independently on your essays. You must not work out your ideas or essay plans with friends. You must write your essay yourself, without substantial help from others. You must not use anyone else’s essay plan, materials, draft, computer disk, or work of any kind, to help you write your essay. This is called “collusion”. You must not help anybody cheat by providing her/him with an essay plan, materials, draft, computer disk, or work of any kind, to help her/him write her/his essay. This is also collusion. Be particularly careful not to allow anyone access to your computer, and do not leave essay drafts on the hard disk of any computer used by others, or in any public place. It is your responsibility to take all reasonable steps to ensure that nobody can access or copy your work. If someone copies your essay you will also be penalised. If two essays are found to be substantially the same in content, organisation and words, the essays of BOTH students will be disregarded and BOTH will be required to sit a special exam. PLAGIARISM: Using someone else’s words or ideas without proper acknowledgement is considered an academic crime, and is called “plagiarism”. If you use the ideas or information from a book or internet site you should express them in your own words and provide a reference. You must not simply rearrange a sentence or substitute synonyms. Using sentences in your essay which are too close to those in the secondary source is considered plagiarism. If you use words or sentences from a book or internet site, you must always use both quotation marks and a reference. Using someone else’s words without quotation marks is considered plagiarism. When you use any ideas or information from a book or internet site, whether you use your own words or quote, you must give a reference. Failure to use a reference is plagiarism. Using words without quotation marks or not referencing is considered plagiarism (stealing) and will be penalised. An essay with substantial plagiarism will automatically fail. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 4 of 12 Introduction by J. Barlow and W. Purchase (2016)1 Sallust (C. Sallustius Crispus), c. 86-35 BC, was born in the Sabine region outside of Rome. He spent his youth in Rome and entered public life. He may have been elected quaestor2 (probably 55 BC), which enabled him to enter the senate, although some historians dispute this3. In 52 BC he was tribune of the people,4 and he gained a reputation as a critic of conservative politicians, and of the traditional aristocracy—he lead angry protests against them after the murder of the popular tribune Clodius5. In 50 BC, he was removed from the senate on the grounds of immorality, although this may have been a false accusation from his political enemies. He fought on Julius Caesar’s side in the Roman civil wars6, commanding sections of Caesar’s army in 49 and 47 BC. He was rewarded with the position of praetor7 (46 BC), which allowed him to re-enter the senate, and became governor of a province in Africa. He was accused of extortion in Africa, but was not convicted, and he retired from public life (probably in 44 BC) in order to devote his time to writing. It is said that he had become very rich by this time and the magnificence of his house and gardens in Rome was famous—although others say these were built by his son, and not by Sallust himself. Catiline’s War, a study of the aristocrat and political leader Catiline’s attempt to seize control of the government in 63 BC, was probably published around 42-41 BC. The essay materials below are from the Prologue (or preface), which Sallust wrote for Catiline’s War. In the Prologue, Sallust explores ideas about history and human nature, about character and personality, about philosophy and psychology. Sallust also appears to place emphasis on the moral decline of Rome, and to try to explain its causes. He attributes the start of decline to the Roman destruction of its main enemy, the North African city-state of Carthage, in 146 BC. He called the traditional aristocracy of Rome corrupt, and he said the aristocracy relied on their family names for influence and power, not their ability. He also argues that public morality, too, had been corrupted by ambition, greed and the pursuit of luxury. 1 Please read the introduction and footnotes given in this extract carefully, as they are provided to assist your understanding. However, it is not recommended that you directly use them as a secondary source in your essay. If for any reason you need to do so, follow the format provided in the HOI referencing guide. 2 A quaestor was a government official who oversaw financial affairs. 3 The senate was a council of several hundred ex-magistrates (high officials of the Roman state), who controlled the finances of the city and traditionally had a deciding influence in politics. 4 Tribunes represented the common people (or the plebeians) in the Roman Republican system of government. They could veto any elections, laws and acts by other magistrates (high officials of the Roman state), as well as propose new laws. 5 Clodius was an influential tribune from a prestigious family, who was accused of using gangs of poorer Romans to intimidate his rivals. He was very popular with the ordinary people, but was killed by Milo (an optimas, or someone who supported the traditional power of the senate) and a gang of his slaves in a fight outside Rome, resulting in rioting and protests in the city. Milo was convicted of his murder and sent into exile. 6 During the 1st century BC, rival army generals (including Julius Caesar) fought each other in civil wars for control of the Roman state. 7 Praetors were important officials who headed the justice system and other important areas of government. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 5 of 12 Secondary source scholars disagree about Sallust’s purpose and approach in constructing his histories. Some scholars see his philosophical ideas, influenced by the Greek philosopher Plato, as the most important feature of his writing, and see his view of Rome as based on philosophical principles. Other scholars see him as an historian, attempting to portray the events, people, and causes of historical change accurately, using an analytic historical method. Some writers emphasize his moral explanations of historical events, and see the main purpose of his writing as to present moral examples and to teach moral principles. Some scholars see him as superficial and rhetorical, without any real purpose or method—more like literature than any kind of formal academic writing. The question asks you to decide whether his ideas are indeed insightful in some way, or whether he is, after all, superficial or shallow. Your conclusion should be based on your reading of the primary sources provided—the secondary sources are meant only to help you understand the background, and should not be used as the main basis for your essay. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 6 of 12 Extracts from Sallust Catiline’s War8 Adapted by J. Barlow and W. Purchase for TCFS use from Sallust 2007, Catiline’s War, the Jugurthine War, histories, trans. AJ Woodman, Penguin, London. The section numbers used in this extract follow the standard system of numbering used in Sallust’s Catiline’s War. 1. All persons who are really want to rise above the animals ought to strive with the utmost effort not to pass through life in silence, like cattle, which nature has made to be bent over and obedient to their stomachs. Our entire power resides in the mind as well as in the body. We use the mind to command, the body to serve. The mind we share with the gods, the body with the animals. Therefore it seems to me more correct to seek glory with our intellectual resources rather than with our physical resources. We must use intellect, because the life that we enjoy is short and we want to ensure that we are remembered as long as possible. The glory of riches and appearance lasts a short time and is fragile, but to have virtue9 is something distinguished and everlasting. For a long time there was considerable dispute amongst men as to whether it was through the power of the body or the excellence of the mind10 that military affairs made greater progress. For, before you begin an action, you must consider your options, and after you have considered, you need speedy action. Hence each element of a person, the mind and the body, lacking something on its own, requires the help of the other part. 2. In the beginning, kings were the first commanders on earth. Kings differed from one another. Some kings used their intellect, others their body. Yet, that was a time at which people were still leading a life not troubled by desire. Each person was satisfied with what he possessed. But, after Cyrus in Asia and the Spartans and Athenians in Greece began to conquer cities and nations,11 and to regard the urge for dominion as a reason for war, they began to think that the greatest glory was found in commanding the greatest empire. Then at last, a discovery was made during the dangerous experience of war: it was discovered that the intellect has the greatest potential, not the body. If the excellence of the mind12 of kings and commanders were as effective in peace as in war, human affairs would be conducted more uniformly and consistently: you would not see power going from one person to another, and everything changing and confused. For, power is easily held by means of the same mental qualities that first created or 8 Refer to this extract in your essay as (Sallust Catiline’s War ex. 1), changing the section number according to the one you are using; and list in your bibliography as: Sallust 2016, Catiline’s War extract, Trinity College Foundation Studies, Melbourne. 9 In this text ‘virtue’ is a translation of the Latin word ‘virtus’ which means (a) the male qualities of courage and fortitude; (b) the moral qualities of excellence in character and moral worth; and (c) exceptional talent, ability, merit; mental excellence. Virtus is translated as ‘prowess’ by Woodman in Sallust 2007, Catiline’s War, the Jugurthine War, histories, trans. AJ Woodman, Penguin, London, p.xxx. 10 The phrase ‘through… excellence of the mind’ is a translation of the Latin phrase ‘virtute animi’. Woodman translates this phrase as ‘prowess of the mind’. See previous footnote. 11 Cyrus the Great, king of Persia in the mid 6 th century BC, started a policy of imperial conquest. ‘Asia’, for the Romans, meant the area around Persia and Turkey. Around the same time, the Spartans formed the Peloponnesian League, and in the 5th century BC, the Athenians formed the Delian League. Through these ‘leagues’ Athens and Sparta effectively controlled and raised taxes and armies from other Greek city-states. Sparta and Athens fought each other for domination in the Peloponnesian War between 431-404 BC. 12 As mentioned in a previous footnote ‘excellence of the mind’ is a translation of the Latin phrase ‘virtute animi’. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 7 of 12 acquired it. But, when work is replaced by laziness, when self-control and fairness are replaced by lust and arrogance, there is a change in fortune for those in power as well as a change in moral behaviour. Therefore, power is always transferred from the degenerate ruler to the better man. Success in farming, sailing and building always depend on excellence of the mind.13 But there are many men who are devoted to their stomachs, and to sleep. They have passed through life ignorant and uncivilized, like travellers in a foreign land. And of course, contrary to nature, the bodies of these people were a source of pleasure to them, while their minds were a burden. In the case of these kinds of people, I assess their life and death the same way. No one ever hears of them, either way. The truth is that the man who really lives his life and gains satisfaction from his life is the man who devotes his energy to seek fame for a distinguished achievement or admirable action. 3. Given the great large amount of possibilities for men in life, nature shows different paths to different people. It is a splendid thing to do well for the advantage of one’s state.14 But also, to speak well is not a bad thing. It is allowed for a person to be distinguished either in peace or in war. And, in many cases, both those men who have done deeds and those who have written of the deeds of others are praised. Even though equal glory is not given to the writer of actions and the performer of them. It seems to me especially difficult to write about actions and the conduct of public affairs. First, since actions have to be matched by the quality of the writing. Second, if you criticize failings, most people think you have spoken from malice and resentment. Third, when you write about the great virtue and glory of good men, each reader easily accepts that which he thinks easy for himself to do. But the reader considers things that he reads about but cannot do, to be false and a fabrication. In my own case, as a young man (like many others) I was initially swept by enthusiasm towards politics, and there many things were against me. For instead of integrity, self-restraint and virtue, it was bad behaviour, bribery and greed which were thriving. My mind rejected those things, unaccustomed as it was to wicked practices. But, among such great faults my youthful weakness was corrupted and gripped by ambition. Although I disagreed with the wicked behaviour of others, my desire for honours15 afflicted me with the same reputation and resentment as it did the rest. 4. Therefore, when my mind sought rest from these many miseries and dangers, I determined that the remainder of my life must be kept far away from politics. It was not my intention to waste the good of my leisure time in lethargy and idleness, nor to spend my life in agriculture or hunting, which are the tasks of slaves. But I decided to return to a project from which my wicked ambition had detained me. I decided to write of the affairs of the Roman people—selectively, according as each subject seemed worthy of recollection. And I had the additional reason that 13 See previous footnote for information about the phrase ‘excellence of the mind’. 14 The term ‘state’ is a translation of the Latin phrase ‘res publica’, which literally means ‘public affairs’. Here it is referring to the state of which one is a citizen. 15 Honours, ‘honores’ in Latin, can mean both the respect one has in Roman society and also the positions one has been elected to by the Roman people—the path towards the consulship was in fact called the ‘cursus honorum’, “the path of honours”. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 8 of 12 my mind was free from the hopes and fears of political partisanship. Therefore I shall describe in as few words as possible, the conspiracy of Catiline16 as truthfully as I am able. For I think his deed especially deserves recollection, owing to the new nature of his crime and of its danger. But a few things must be explained about Catiline’s behaviour and habits before I can begin my narrative. 5. L. Catiline was of noble birth. He had great strength of both mind and body, but a wicked and crooked personality. From his youth, civil wars, slaughter, seizures of property and civil disharmony were welcome to him. And there he spent his young manhood. His body was tolerant of hunger, cold and lack of sleep, beyond the point which anyone will believe. His mind was daring, cunning and versatile, capable of any pretense or untruth. He was greedy for other people’s property, wasteful with his own. He burnt with desires. His speaking was eloquent but it lacked wisdom. The enormity of his mind always desired the unrestrained, the incredible, the heights beyond reach. After the dictatorship of L. Sulla,17 he had been assailed by his greatest desire to capture control of the state. He cared little about the methods by which he might achieve it, provided he acquired kingship for himself. His defiant spirit was tormented each day by his poverty and a guilty consciousness of his crimes, both of which he had increased by the evil practices which I mentioned above. He was incited, too, by the community’s corrupt morals, which were afflicted by those worst and mutually different sicknesses, luxury and greed. Since I have mentioned the morals of the community, it seems appropriate to think about the past and to discuss in a few words the customs of our ancestors at home and on campaign in war. It is right to ask by what means our ancestors governed the state and how great the state was when they bequeathed it to us. It is right to ask how the state changed gradually from the finest and best and became the worst and most outrageous. 6. The City of Rome, on my understanding, was founded and held initially by the Trojans, who as refugees under the leadership of Aeneas had been wandering with no home.18 With them were the native Italians, simple country people, without laws and without command; they were free and unrestricted by laws or government.19 After they had come to live together behind the single city-wall of Rome, it is incredible to recall how easily they merged, despite the difference in race, their separate languages and different life-styles. In a short time, because of harmony, the diverse and wandering multitude of people had become a community of Romans. But, after their state had grown in terms of its population, customs and territory, and had become quite prosperous and quite powerful, their wealth (as is the way with most people’s affairs) gave rise 16 L. Catiline (108-62 BC), was an aristocrat and politician, who was governor of the Roman province of Africa in 67-66 BC. He stood for election as consul in 63 and again in 62 BC, but was unsuccessful. He raised an army and attempted to seize power through military force, but was defeated and killed in battle. Details about this conspiracy of Catiline (63 BC) can be found in Scullard HH 1988, From the Gracchi to Nero, Routledge, Londan and New York, pp93-94. 17 L. Sulla was a dictator in Rome from 82 to 79 BC. Catiline had been a supporter of Sulla. In the Roman Republic, the dictator was head of state with supreme power, but one who was only appointed by the consuls in times of great emergency, and for only 6 months. By the end of the Republic, however, this was beginning to be misused. 18 According to legend, Rome had been founded by Aeneas and the Trojans who survived the war between them and the Greeks, and traveled from Troy, in what is now modern Turkey, to Italy. There is probably no truth in this legend. 19 This refers to the inhabitants of this area of Italy before the legendary arrival of the Trojans. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 9 of 12 to envy. Neighbouring kings and peoples attacked them, and only a few of their friends were a source of help. The rest of their friends were terror-stricken and stayed clear of any danger. But the Romans, at home and on campaign, concentrated on quickness of response to the enemy. They made preparations and encouraged each other. They confronted the enemy and protected by arms their freedom and their fatherland and parents. They repulsed dangers by their virtue. They brought aid to their allies and friends and they acquired friendships more by giving favours than by receiving favours. Their government was kingship. A select group, physically weak in years but intellectually strong in wisdom, would deliberate in the interests of the state. They were called ‘the fathers’,20 either because of their age or because of the similarity of their caring role. After, the institution of kingship, which initially had been to preserve freedom and to increase the state, transformed itself into tyranny. With a change of government, they created for themselves annual commands and paired commanders, called the consuls.21 They thought that in that way there was the least possibility of the human mind becoming arrogant through too much power to do wrong. 7. But that was the period at which each man began to advance himself more and to use his intellect more. Kings are more suspicious of good men than of bad men and they always fear men of merit. It is incredible to recall how much the community grew in a short time after its acquisition of freedom. So great was the desire for glory which had arisen. From the very first, as soon as its young men could tolerate warfare, they learned military practice through hard work in camp. Young men took pleasure in attractive armour and military horses rather than in prostitutes and parties. To such men hard work was normal, military campaigns were usual, an armed enemy was not a source of fear. Virtue was everything. The greatest competition for glory was amongst themselves. Each hurried to be the one to attack an opponent, to climb an enemy wall, and to be observed while doing such actions. They considered this to be their riches, this to be a good reputation and great nobility. They were hungry for praise, generous with money. They wanted mighty glory, honourable riches. I can recall the places where the Roman people, with only a small army unit, defeated the greatest of enemy forces. I recall the cities which, though protected by nature, they took by storm. I would say more, but that subject would take us too far from our project. 8. But of course Fortune’s 22 dominion extends everywhere. Fortune makes things famous or unknown according to arbitrary chance, rather than to reality. The achievements of the Athenians, in my assessment, were perfectly substantial and magnificent, but somewhat less than their reputation maintains. Because a group of greatly talented writers was produced in Athens, the actions of the Athenians are celebrated across the world as the greatest. Hence the virtue of those who did the actions is considered to be only as great as was the ability of distinguished writers to 20 Sallust is describing the origin of the Roman Senate. Throughout the Republic, senators continued to be called ‘fathers’. As mentioned in a previous footnote the senate was a council of several hundred ex-magistrates who controlled the finances of the city and had a deciding influence in politics through custom rather than formal powers. They commanded great respect in Roman society. 21 The Romans believed the consuls were first elected in 509 BC. Consequently, this was the traditional date of the beginning of the Roman Republic. According to legend, this occurred when the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin ‘the Arrogant’) was expelled and an elected government was introduced. According to Roman ideas, their system of elected government, which they called their ‘republic’, was based on ‘liberty’ to choose the best men to rule (rather than hereditary rule) and the balancing of power between many, rather than rule by one man. 22 In Roman belief the idea of fortune or luck is represented by Fortuna, the goddess of fortune. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 10 of 12 praise it in words. But such a possibility was never open to the Roman people, because all their cleverest men were the most enterprising in action. Romans exercised their intellectual talent by being men of action. All the best men preferred to do rather than to speak. They thought that their own good actions should be praised by others, rather than that they themselves should write about the actions of others. 9. At home and away on campaign, good behaviour was cultivated. There was the greatest harmony, very little greed. Justice and goodness thrived amongst them, not because of laws, but by nature. Quarrels, disharmony and conflict were what they conducted with the enemy. Citizens competed with citizens in the area of virtue. They were generous in praying to the gods, frugal in the home, faithful to their friends. By two qualities—daring in war and fairness in peace— they took care both of themselves and of their state. The greatest proofs I have of this are as follows. In war, punishment was more often inflicted on those Romans who had fought against the enemy contrary to command, or who had withdrawn too slowly when recalled from battle, than on those who had dared to abandon the standards or to run away from their position when beaten. In peace, they exercised command by kindness, not by intimidation. When wronged, they preferred to forgive than to take vengeance. 10. But, when the state had grown through hard work and justice, and great kings had been defeated in war, and wild nations and mighty peoples subdued by force, and when Carthage23— the rival of Rome for command of an empire—had been eradicated, and all seas and lands became accessible, then Fortune24 began to turn savage and to confound everything. Romans had endured hard work, danger, and uncertain and rough conditions. They had regarded leisure and riches (things which are generally desired by others) as a burden and a source of misery. Then, after the destruction of Carthage [in 146BC], the desire for money first of all, and then for empire, grew. These factors were the stimulus (so to speak) of every wickedness. For greed undermined trust, honesty and all other good qualities. Instead, greed taught men arrogance, cruelty, to neglect the gods, to regard everything as for sale. Ambition drove many men to become false, having one sentiment shut away in the heart and another ready on the tongue. Men now assessed friendships and antagonisms in terms not of reality but in terms of self-interest. To have a good outward manner was thought of better than a good character. At first these things grew gradually; sometimes they were punished. Finally, when the disease had attacked like a plague, Rome changed. And Rome’s government changed from being the best and most just, to become cruel and intolerable. 11. At first people’s minds were affected less by greed than by ambition, which, though a fault, was nevertheless closer to virtue; for the good man and the bad man have a similar personal craving for glory, honour and power. But the good man strives along the true path, whereas the bad man, because he lacks good qualities, presses forward by cunning and falsity. Greed 23 Carthage was a city-state in the North of Africa (modern Tunisia), which was a rival power in the Mediterranean in the 3rd-2nd centuries BC. Rome fought several very bitter wars against this state, and when Rome won the final war in 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed (although later rebuilt), and the Carthaginian territories conquered by Rome. Sallust sees 146 BC as the turning point in the moral history of Rome. 24 As mentioned in a previous footnote in Roman belief the idea of fortune or luck is represented by Fortuna, the goddess of fortune. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 11 of 12 involves an enthusiasm for money (which no wise man has ever desired). As if saturated with a harmful poison, greed feminizes the manly body and mind, knows neither limit nor excess, and is lessened by neither sufficiency nor insufficiency. But after L. Sulla,25 having taken the state by arms, had had a wicked outcome to his good beginning, everyone started to seize and rob. One man desired a house, another land; the victors showed neither restraint nor moderation but did foul and cruel deeds against their fellow citizens. To this was added the fact that, to gain the loyalty of the army which he had led in Asia, L. Sulla had treated it luxuriously and too generously, contrary to ancestral custom. Attractive and pleasurable localities had easily softened the defiant spirits of his soldiers during their periods of leisure. That was the first time an army of the Roman people became accustomed to love-affairs and drink; to admire statues, paintings and engraved goblets; to seize them regardless of whether they were privately or publicly owned; to despoil shrines and to pollute everything sacred and profane alike. After the soldiers had achieved victory, they left their victims nothing. The reason was that too much of a good thing overwhelms the minds even of the wise. There was no chance men of corrupt morals would behave moderately in their victory. 12. After riches began to be a source of honour and to be attended by glory, command and power, virtue began to dull, poverty to be considered a disgrace and blamelessness to be regarded as malice. Following the path of riches, therefore, young men were attacked by luxury and greed along with arrogance. They seized, they squandered; they placed little weight on their own property and desired that of others. They considered modesty and unchastity, divine and human matters, as indistinguishable, and nothing as worthwhile or requiring self-restraint. When you contemplate houses and villas built on the scale of cities, it is worthwhile to view the temples of the gods which our ancestors, those most religious of mortals, made. Yet they, our ancestors, improved the shrines of the gods by their devotion, their own houses by their glory, and they took nothing from their defeated victims. But these people, the young men of modern times and the basest of individuals, committed the gravest crime in removing from their allies whatever the victors of the past age had left them. It was as if doing wrong and exercising command were really one and the same thing. 13. Why should I recall that numerous private individuals undermined mountains and paved over the seas26—things which are credible to no one except those who have seen them? To such men, it seems to me, their riches were a plaything: when they could have used them with honour, they instead hurried to misuse them disgracefully. But the lust which had arisen for illicit sex, gluttony and other excesses was no less. Men took the passive role of women, women made their chastity openly available. Everywhere, by land and by sea, was ransacked for the sake of food. Men slept before there could be any desire for sleep. They did not wait for the coming of hunger or thirst, nor for cold nor tiredness, but in their luxuriousness anticipated them all. It was these things which inflamed young men to crime when their private wealth failed. A mind and its way of thinking saturated in wicked practices did not easily let go of its lusts, so the comprehensive dedication to profit and expenditure was all the more uncontrolled. 25 As mentioned in a previous footnote L. Sulla was a dictator in Rome from 82 to 79 BC. 26 The words ‘numerous private individuals undermined mountains and paved over the seas’ refer to the luxurious seaside houses built by the wealthy. HOI February Main Intake 2016 First Essay Q1 Page 12 of 12 14. In so great and so corrupt a community Catiline kept himself surrounded (it was very easy to do) by groups of those men responsible for every depravity and deed, like bodyguards. Men who had ravaged their ancestral property by means of their muscle, stomach or groin;27 men who had run up a huge debt to buy their way out of some depravity or deed; all those men anywhere who were convicted of parricide or sacrilege in the courts (or who feared the courts in the light of their deeds); those men whose muscle and tongue made provision for them by perjury or civil bloodshed; all men who were agitated by depravity, destitution and evil conscience. These men were Catiline’s nearest and dearest. If there was anyone still clear of blame who happened to fall into friendship with him, he was easily made the same as the others by daily association and temptations. It was especially the fellowship of young men that he sought. The minds of young men—still impressionable and flexible—were captured without difficulty by cunning. For, depending on what burning enthusiasm each one had at that age, Catiline presented some with prostitutes, bought racing dogs and horses for others, and, finally, spared neither expense nor his own modesty, provided he could make them loyal to himself. 27 In other words, men who had wasted their inherited fortune by excessive eating, sex, and other physical luxuries.