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Business studies homework help

September 14, 2018 0 Comment

Once you have formulated your question, conduct research from non-scholarly sources on the internet (e.g., news articles, op-eds, etc.) that present substantive reasoning on each side of the issue.

Your task is to present and evaluate the reasoning from a non-scholarly source on each side of your issue. There is no need to take sides on the issue at this stage. In your analysis, strive to be as objective as possible, evaluating the reasoning from a neutral point of view. For an example of how to complete this paper, take a look at the Week One ExamplePreview the document paper.

Your paper should include clearly labeled sections addressing the following elements:

  • Introduction (approximately 100 words) 
    • Explain your topic.
    • State the specific question that you are addressing.
  • Presentation of an Argument  
    • Describe the non-scholarly source (e.g., an op-ed, newspaper article, website, etc.) on one side of the issue and summarize the key points made (approximately 50 words).
    • Present what you see as the main argument from that source. Make sure to present your argument in standard form, with the premises listed above the conclusion. (approximately 100 words)
    • Evaluate the quality of the reasoning in this source (approximately 200 words) 
      • In completing your evaluation, consider assessing how well the research supports the premises of the main argument and how strongly the reasoning supports the conclusion of that argument.
  • Presentation of an Argument on the Other Side of the Issue 
    • Describe the non-scholarly source on the opposite side of the issue and summarize the key points made. (approximately 50 words)
    • Present what you see as the main argument from that source. Make sure to present your argument in standard form, with the premises listed above the conclusion. (approximately 100 words)
    • Evaluate the quality of the reasoning in this source (approximately 200 words) 
      • In completing your evaluation, consider assessing how well the research supports the premises of the main argument and how strongly the reasoning supports the conclusion.

      The Presenting Arguments paper

  • Must be 400 to 1,000 words in length (not including title and references pages), double-spaced, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the APA Style (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. 
  • Must include a separate title page with the following: 
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • For assistance with formatting of the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
  • Must use at least two sources in addition to the course text. The Help! Need Article (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. tutorial can also assist with searching for articles. 
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. 
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.


Running head: IS MARIJUANA SAFE? 1


Is Marijuana Safe?


PHI103 Informal Logic


Modeled example for week 1 assignment

In recent years, many states have voted to legalize marijuana, both for medical and recreational uses (Sanders, 2018). However, federal law still prohibits the use or sale of marijuana in the United States, allegedly because of negative health effects (Ripley, 2017). With the recent decision by the Justice department to crack down on marijuana distribution (Johnson, 2018), an important questionis whether those federal laws have sound medical science on their side. This paper will begin to explore the specific question of whether marijuana use is harmful to health. It will explore articles that argue on each side in an effort to evaluate the quality of the reasoning of each. Comment by Foster, Christopher: Remember to cite all sources of information with APA formatting. Comment by Foster, Christopher: The intro paragraph should include a summary of what you will do in the paper.

Article Against the Use of Marijuana Comment by Foster, Christopher: Note the inclusion of clear headings for each required element. This makes it much easier for your instructor to notice that you complete all required sections.

The first articleto appear when searching ‘Marijuana is Harmful” is a web site from an anti-drug non-profit organization called the Foundation for a Drug Free World. The article argues that marijuana is harmful based on several studies showing multiple sources of danger to the user and to society. The reasoning given contains these key premises: Comment by Foster, Christopher: This briefly explains the source.

Premise 1: Studies show that Marijuana use diminishes attention, memory, and learning. Comment by Foster, Christopher: The clearest way to express an argument is in standard form, with the premises clearly labeled and listed above the conclusion.

Premise 2: Studies show that Marijuana use increases the likelihood of traffic accidents, including fatalities.

Conclusion: Marijuana use is bad for the health of the user and for society (Foundation for a Drug Free World, n.d.). Comment by Foster, Christopher: The premises and conclusion are not always stated verbatim in the article. In these cases, do your best to express the reasoning that the authors of the article are intending to convey.

Evaluation of the Quality of the Argument Against the Use of Marijuana

The argument given appears to make strong points in favor of the conclusion. The first premise seems to demonstrate that marijuana use is bad for the user, and the second seems to show that it is bad for society, thereby supporting the truth of both parts of the conclusion. Comment by Foster, Christopher: This section explains favorably the reasoning used in the article.

For these premisesto adequately support the conclusion, however, we need to assume that there is nothing to outweigh these two negative factors. For example, suppose that someone is using marijuana to combat the effects of chemotherapy or to prevent glaucoma. In such cases, the negatives of reduced attention, memory, and learning could be outweighed by the medical benefits. Furthermore, such a person might be sure not to drive after using it. In cases like those, the premises of this argument could be true and the conclusion false. Therefore, even if the premises are true, the argument does not adequately support the conclusion that marijuana use is always bad, only that it has some bad effects. Comment by Foster, Christopher: This section looks more critically at the reasoning involved, showing that the logic is not as strong as first appears. Comment by Foster, Christopher: This sentence proves that the argument is not deductively valid. It could, however, still make good points in favor of its conclusion (and be inductively strong).

A second concern about the argument is the lack of support given for the premises. If studies demonstrate these results, it would be easy to provide references to them. This website, however, gives no citations or references to the studies in question. It only instructs those seeking the references to contact the Foundation for a Drug-Free World for that information (Foundation, n.d.). It is strange that a web site would make it so difficult to check its sources. The lack of clear support for the premises substantially weakens the argument presented here. Comment by Foster, Christopher: This section demonstrates another flaw in the argument: The lack of support given for the premises that it relies upon.

Article Supporting the Safety of Marijuana Use Comment by Foster, Christopher: When it comes to section headings, clarity is the most important goal.

An organization calling itself Americans for Safe Access advocates for legal marijuana use. It hosts a web site summarizing a substantial amount of research addressing the safety concerns about the use of marijuana. It makes a sustained case that marijuana may be used safely and healthfully.

Premise 1: A report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration states that there has never been a death recorded from the use of cannabis (Americans for Safe Access, 2018).

Premise 2: Scientific research has shown that marijuana use is safer than many foods and legal medications (2018).

Premise 3: Research has shown no negative effects on lung function for those who smoke marijuana moderately (2018).

Premise 4: Marijuana has been shown to be far less addictive and less prone to abuse than many legal drugs (2018).

Premise 5: Negative side effects of smoking marijuana are relatively minor and can be mitigated with common sense precautions (2018).

Conclusion: Marijuana use is relatively safe compared to other medications. Comment by Foster, Christopher: You will commonly find non-scholarly sources making strong claims. The job here is to see how well these claims are supported by the reasoning provided.

Evaluation of the Quality of the Argument in the Pro-Marijuana Source

The argument makes very strong points on many topics, attempting to address nearly all of the main concerns about marijuana. However, the studies cited do not show that there are no long term negative effects from cannabis use. For example, the article includes a reference to a study stating that “there might be decrements in the ability to learn and remember new information in chronic users” (Grant, Gonzales, Carey, Natarajan, & Wolfson, 2003). Comment by Foster, Christopher: It is appropriate to point out any weaknesses in the reasoning, even if they may not represent errors within the article.

The conclusion of the argument, therefore, needs to be understood in the context of such statements (which are de-emphasized on the website). The conclusion should not be understood to mean that marijuana is harmless, only that it is perhaps less harmful that commonly thought or than many legal drugs. Comment by Foster, Christopher: Again, this is a comment on the strength of the support for the conclusion. Even though this is not a fallacy, it is useful to point out the degree of support provided for a conclusion.

There are many studies referenced in support of the premises. However, the references are not given on the page. A link on the page states that the resources are available to members only (and one is invited to sign up). Enough information is given in text that it is easy to find the studies used, and all appear to be of high quality. However, the page would benefit from making that information easier to access on the page itself. Comment by Foster, Christopher: These are comments about the degree of support for the premises.

Overall, the arguments on this page appear to be quite strong overall in support of the conclusion given, as long as that conclusion is understood in the limited sense indicatedabove. Comment by Foster, Christopher: No concluding paragraph is required for this assignment. This is a formative assignment, designed to build towards the complete final paper.

References : Comment by Foster, Christopher: Remember to provide a reference section (on a separate page) that gives all sources cited within the article.

Americans for Safe Access. (2018). Cannabis safety. Retrieved from http://www.safeaccessnow.org/cannabis_safety Comment by Foster, Christopher: Use APA formatting for all references.

Foundation for a Drug-Free World (n.d.). The truth about marijuana: Behind the smoke screen. Retrieved from http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/marijuana/behind-the-smoke-screen.html

Grant, I., Gonzales, R., Carey C. L., Natarajan, L., & Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Internal Neuropsychological Society, 9(5), 679-689.https://doi.org/10.1017/51355617703950016

Johnson, K., & Hughes, T. (2018, January 4). Justice department cracks down on legal marijuana with rollback of Obama policy. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/01/04/justice-department-crack-down-legal-marijuana-roll-back-obama-policy/1003183001/

Ripley, E. (2017, December 20). Why is marijuana illegal? A look at the history of MJ in America. Retrieved from https://news.medicalmarijuanainc.com/the-road-to-prohibition-why-did-america-make-marijuana-illegal-in-the-first-place/

Sanders, L. (2018, January 2). Marijuana legalization 2018: Which states might consider cannabis laws this year? Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/marijuana-legalization-2018-which-states-will-consider-cannabis-laws-year-755282

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